The NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCD COE) funded a project focusing on defining ethical guidelines for the regulation of cyber conflicts. The project included two international workshops. The first one was held in Rome at the Centre for High Defence Studies (CASD), in November 2013, the second one was hosted at the Magdalen College, University of Oxford in November 2014. Both workshops gathered international experts with different backgrounds to analyse gaps in the regulation of cyber conflicts and identify ethical principles guiding the definition of new policies for cyber conflicts. Topics of particular interest were: the application of ‘Just War Theory’ to cyber conflicts, cyber espionage, hacktivism, proportionality, the status of cyber combatants and non-combatants.
The project’s findings have been published in a volume “Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operation. A NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence Initiative” (M. Taddeo & L. Glorioso), Springer